TAR2. The Scottish Clan Campbell
Single Hook Tartan Fly
TARTAN FLY PATTERNS OF SCOTLAND. Hook size 8 - $US each
Unlike most dry flies and nymphs, lure (streamer) flies do not try to represent a natural insect or bait fish. They are attractor flies that try to give the appearance of some thing that a trout may consider edible. I have found them successful when the fish do not seem to be taking an interest in their normal food. The appearance of this exotic looking fly seems to provoke a reflex attack reaction in some trout. This is particularly so if you can make you fly invade their 'space' as they are very territorial.
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The origin of the Campbell name is not clear. Some say that it came from a Norman knight called Campo Bello who was part of William the Conquerors army in 1066, but this knight's name was not on the battle roll. The name does not sound very Norman French, was it of Italian origin? Was this knight a soldier of fortune who was granted land after the victory? Was it the name of some Roman, who after his countrymen retired from Britain, had settled among the Britons in Scotland. There is talk that it had Celtic origins. In the record of the parliament of Robert Bruce held in 1320, the name of the then head of the family, entered as Sir Nigel de Campo Bello.
The clan was the most powerful force in Argyll and the west of Scotland. By marriage to the daughter of the King's treasurer Archie Campbell obtained the Lordship of Lochow. Gillespe Campbell is the first of the Clan mentioned in history with the modern spelling.His name occurred as a witness of the charter of the lands of the burgh of Newburgh by King Alexander III in 1246. Colin Campbell was knighted in 1280 by King Alexander III, because of his warlike actions, and a descendant Sir Duncan Campbell was created a peer of the realm by King James II in 1445. Sir Beil Campbell of Lochow, his eldest son, swore fealty to Edward the First of England, but afterwards joined Robert the Bruce, and fought by his side in almost every encounter, from the defeat at Methven to the victory at Bannockburn. King Robert the Bruce rewarded his services by giving him his sister, the Lady Mary Bruce, in marriage, and conferring on him the lands forfeited by the Earl of Athole.
Sir Colin Campbell, their eldest son, obtained a charter from his uncle, King Robert Bruce, of the lands of Lochow and Artornish, dated at Arbroath, 10th February 1316, In which he is recorded as 'Colinus filius Cambel, militis'. As a reward for assisting the Steward of Scotland in 1334 in the recovery of the castle of Dunoon, in Cowal, Sir Colin was made hereditary governor of the castle, and has the grant of certain lands for the support of his dignity. Sir Colin died about 1340.His grandson was made the Earl of Argyll in 1457. His son, then Lord High Chancellor, was killed a the battle of Flodden in 1513 two Campbell brothers fought on opposite sides during the battle of Langside in 1568. He was the first of the family to assume the designation of Argyll. Archibald the 5th Earl commanded the Army of Queen Mary whilst Colin Campbell fought for the young King James.
Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow, the eldest son, was one of the hostages in 1424 under the name of Duncan, Lord of Argyll, for the payment of the sum of forty thousand pounds for the expense of King James the First's maintenance during his long imprisonment in England, when Sir Duncan was found to be worth fifteen hundred merks-a-year. Later King James appointed him one of his privy council, and constituted his 'justiciary and lieutenant' within the shire of Argyll. He became a lord of parliament in 1445, under the title of Lord Campbell. Lady Elizabeth Campbell, daughter of Archibald, second Earl of Argyll, and, either from the circumstances of their union being unfruitful or more probably owing to some domestic quarrels, he determined to get rid of his wife. Some accounts say that she had twice attempted her husband's life; but, whatever the cause may have been, Maclean, following the advice of two of his vassals, he ordered his wife to be tied on a rock, which was only visible at low water. He intended that she should be swept away by the return of the tide. This rock lies between the island of Lismore and the coast of Mull, and is still known by the name of the 'Lady's Rock'. From this perilous situation the intended victim was rescued by a passing boat, and conveyed to her brother's house. Her relations surprised her husband in bed, and he was assassinated by Sir John Calder of Calder, the lady's brother. The Macleans instantly took arms to revenge the death of their chief, and the Campbells were not slow in preparing to follow up the feud, but the government interfered, and, for the present, bloody feud was avoided.
Not only did they have battles with the clan Macleans, throughout the centuries they were involved in many inter clan boarder wars with different clans. Because of the clan Campbell's strength the king used them to keep the rebellious clan MacDonald in order. Cross eyed Archibald Campbell was leader of the Covenanter and was created a marquis in 1641 but was beheaded in 1661. In 1685 his son was beheaded for his part in the Monmouth rebellion. Archibald the 10th Earl returned to Britain with the future British King William of Orange. He was one of the commissioners deputed from the Scots Parliament, to offer the crown of Scotland to the Prince, and to tender him the coronation oath. For this and other services, the family estates, which had been forfeited, were restored to him. He was appointed to several important public offices, and in 1696, was made colonel of the Scots horse-guards, afterwards raising a regiment of his own clan, which greatly distinguished itself in Flanders. He was elevated to a dukedom. Because of their later allegiance to the crown and their participation in the suppression of the Highlands the Campbell clan became hated by certain other clans. In 1706 his Grace made a campaign in Flanders, under the Duke of Marlborough,and rendered important services at various sieges and battles on the continent,and on December 20, 1710, he was installed a knight of the Garter. On the accession of George I, he was made groom of the stole, and one of the nineteen members of the regency, nominated by his majesty.
On the king's arrival in England, he was appointed general and commander-in-chief of the king's forces in Scotland. During the Rebellion in 1715, he defeated the Earl of Mar's army at Sheriffmuir, and forced the Pretender to retire from the kingdom. The 2nd Duke of Argyll promoted the Union of England and Scotland, for which he became very unpopular in Scotland. In 1708 the 3rd Duke of Argyll he was made an extraordinary lord of session, and after the Union, was chosen one of the sixteen representative peers of Scotland. The 4th Duke of Argyll, when the rebellion of 1745 broke out, was appointed To the command of all the troops and garrisons in the west of Scotland. John Campbell the 9th Duke married Queen Victoria's daughter Princess Louise.
Tartan in Scotland
For many centuries tartan was the everyday dress of highland Scotland. Although it was worn in other parts of Scotland it was in the Scottish Highlands that it continued to be developed into a symbol of belonging to a particular clan. A clan is like a tribe. Different areas of Scotland were controlled by different families.
Tartans used several centuries ago were very simple checks of two or three colours. These colours were obtained by using the dye from roots, plants, berries and trees.
When chemical dyes were invented a broader range of colours became available. More elaborate patterns were woven and branches of larger clans developed tartans of their own by adding an extra stripe or other variation of the main clan tartan pattern.
In the Royal Treasurer's accounts of 1471 there is a the first reference to the King of Scotland, James III, purchasing tartan. King James V wore tartan when out hunting in the Highlands in 1538. When Queen Elizabeth I of England died childless the Scottish King James VI of the Royal clan Stuart became King James I of England as well as Scotland. The English and Scottish King Charles II wore clan Stuart tartan ribbons on his coat at his marriage in 1662. In 1587 one of the first references to clan tartans was found in crown documents that show Hector MacLean of Duart paid the duties owed on his land not with money but with sixty bales of cloth of white, black and green. These colors are the colors of the MacLean hunting tartan.
Some Historians suggest that prior to the 18th century clansmen wore whatever pattern the weavers chose to supply, but in a recorded court case in 1572 a housewife won her case against a weaver who failed to supply her with the tartan cloth of the correct design. There are a number of literary references in the early 1700's to clansmen dressed in the livery of their chiefs. It is known that clans were organised on military lines, and that there were clan regiments. The tartan livery was the regimental uniform.
In 1688 the Stuart King James II was forced from the British throne because he was wanted to give greater freedoms to Catholic's. He was the first openly Catholic King since Henry VIII. In 1714 when the crown was offered to the Hanovarian King George I many people in Scotland were unhappy having a foreign ruler. They wanted a Stuart King on the British throne. Their hopes lay in the son of King James II, called James Stuart. His supporters were called 'Jacobites'. In 1715 the rebellion was easily put down and James fled to France. A greater threat to the British throne appeared in 1745. This invasion was lead by James Stuart's son, Charles Stuart, known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. With help from the French he landed on the Outer Hebrides. He then sailed to the Scottish mainland and marched southwards with a growing number of Highland clans. His followers were again called Jacobites. They captured Edinburgh and crossed into England. Few English joined the Jacobites. King George II sent a large army to oppose them. Bonnie Prince Charlie retreated to Scotland. In April 1746 the two armies meet at Culloden. The rebels lost and Bonnie Prince Charlie escaped to France. He had no children and he was the last Stuart to fight for the British throne. Because of the support of the Highland clans the British Government passed laws to stop any more Jacobite risings. These laws tried to destroy the clan system.
After the English victory at the battle of Culloden the London Government, in an attempt to purge the Highlands of all rebellious elements, passed an Act of Parliament disarming all Highlanders and made it unlawful to wear tartan. This was rigorously enforced and thus suggests that the clan tartan was worn with pride and as a sign of loyalty to their chief and the Stuart claim to the British throne rather than the German King Georges.
The act was repealed in 1785, but by that time the Highlanders had become accustomed to wearing other dress. Many of the tartan weavers had died taking details of the old styles with them to the grave. The first tartan revival occurred in 1822 when King George IV, whilst visiting Edinburgh, gave instructions that he desired local dignitaries to wear their clan tartan to royal functions. This resulted in new tartans being invented since those who had no clan tartan found tailors who could invent one for them.
Tartans are described by the purpose for which they are used
Clan Tartans: These are patterns for general use by members of the clan.
Dress Tartans: These were originally worn by the women of the clan and were lighter coloured variations of the clan tartan pattern.
Hunting Tartans: These were worn for sport. If a clan's tartan was brightly colored then their hunting tartan was designed using normally browns and greens so the wearer was less visible against the heather, grass and bracken of the moors and mountains.
Mourning Tartans: Dark variations on the clan tartan for use at funerals and during periods of mourning.
Chief's Tartans: These are special designs that are only worn by the clan chief and his immediate family.
Royal Tartans: These should never be worn by anyone outside the Royal family
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